ELL Instructional Strategies for Sight Words. Listening and speaking strategies video; then have students watch speaking and listening strategies to and demonstrated a basic understanding of the hundreds of stories and conversations for esl learners to practice listening and speaking. Yet, for all its importance, students (and even teachers) often fail to give listening the attention it needs. A strategy that actually gets students to chat more is pretty much the holy grail. For example, students might keep daily journals or do brief homework assignments that do not require intensive editing. In this approach, teachers guide students through assembling portfolios of their work, often having students choose examples of their best work to demonstrate their progress. As practicing becomes more natural, challenge each other for longer periods of time. More elaborate versions can feature sound effects, costumes, or other theatrical elements. Students witness the possibilities of expression in language, and have the opportunity to practice new skills. There are many more useful learning strategies to implement in an ESL classroom and with ELs in the regular education setting with an inclusive model. Some best practices include repeated reading of words, sentences, and stories; using cognates and synonyms to explain unfamiliar words and concepts; and summarizing text. These ESL listening activities for intermediate students are game changers in the classroom. click Impact of changed practices. Flash Cards. Students brainstorm ideas for writing, referring to their portfolios, journals, or teacher-provided prompts. Teaching grammar without practicing or using it in context is too abstract a method for ELLs. In “The Impact of Readers Theater (RT) in the EFL Classroom,” Ng Chin Leong Patrick notes that this type of group storytelling gives ELLs practice with vocabulary, grammatical structure, pronunciation, and reading fluency. No amount of repeated reading will illuminate the meaning of unfamiliar words. Idioms are extremely difficult for English Language Learners to identify and interpret. Firstly, there is the act of copying a list of words learned in a lesson, or of unfamiliar words for which to find meanings. These strategies should not be separated from the content teaching but woven into the ongoing fabric of the lesson. When completing assessments, follow the procedures and scoring instructions. These days, ESL instruction comes in all shapes and forms, from social media mini-lessons to individualized intensives. While we should be listening intently to every word, it can be quite obvious that our thoughts are elsewhere. Comprehension comes before the ability to produce language, which is why ESL teachers of newcomers might pose a question only to see a complete lack of response among their students. #2 Listen With Your Whole Body. The teacher then reads the work aloud, and afterward gives it to the student to practice reading aloud. As students learn to read fluently, it can easy to assume they understand what they read. During brainstorming, they might fill in graphic organizers such as K-W-L Charts, word webs, mind maps, or basic outlines. Listen to Notice: The instructor reads aloud a text. Some activities that make for interesting and diverse speaking activities include: 1. “Repeated Reading Works,” published in Language Magazine, describes this process with a few variations. Instruction in an ESL classroom should include as many of the following strategies as possible. Then, the teacher leads students in a cooperative activity in which they write a script based on the story. The multiple uses of reading mean that ELLs should receive structured lessons that build their literacy skills while concurrently getting support for their English language development. The 10 activities listed below aim to get your students thinking, moving and working together. In writing a first draft, students use information from their graphic organizers, supplemented by their own experiences as well as by guided research done in class. One way to keep grammar instruction varied and challenging is to vary students’ purposes for writing and the genres of their writing projects. © 2020 K-12 Teachers Alliance. Modeling correct sentence structure and grammar gives students ample opportunity to hear and rehearse the target language. Her interests include innovative teaching practices, speaking Spanish, world cultures, and travel. The simple technique of Repeated Reading builds both fluency and comprehension. These students can be identified through the school enrollment process as able to benefit from English Language Development (ELD) Programming. ESL classroom games are an interactive way to allow students to continue learning independently and can be incorporated into a rotation during center time, as an intervention, or during indoor recess. The question is, how does interaction look in a classroom in which people are in their silent periods, unable to produce language? To help English learners with this, educators must use scaffolding in every grade level and classroom. The four basic communicative activities in language consist of speaking, listening, reading and writing. These terms refer to Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. Interactive notebooks give teachers the opportunity to teach content using these different modalities. Online learning has been an educational option, especially in…. If the text is nonfiction, particularly from a textbook, then further points for discussion arise, including textual cues such as subtitles, bullet points, photographs, captions, timelines, and charts. Another possibility is to collect some money for each time you use your own language with a friend. The students will react fittingly to most social exchanges, including introducing oneself, placing questions about the other person, and then provide responses to various questions about their individual information. 3. Educators debate the value of corrective feedback in the context of speaking English, particularly for beginning ELLs. The Clark County School District English Language Learner Program website outlines the typical configurations of ELL classrooms in public schools in the United States: In 1979, language acquisition theorist and professor Dr. Jim Cummins developed the terms BICS and CALP. Krashen uses this term to describe how students under pressure to produce correct language cannot fully engage in conversation. Students work in English for a designated percentage of the school day and in another target language (often Spanish) for a further percentage of the school day. ESL Teacher and coach Raeann Pugliano suggests that ESL teachers: Because context aids in the learning and reinforcement of new grammatical structures, writing projects provide an ideal avenue for practicing grammar. In order for these assessments to effectively reflect student learning and competence, they should arise naturally from lessons taught in class. Keep in mind that answering questions aloud in English many times is a huge risk for students, as they are nervous about saying something wrong and often being made fun of. Depending on the school and district, students may receive ELD support in a variety of ways. High school principal; M.A. Encourage students to describe, summarize, define, contrast, and compare by modeling. click Learning about my students' needs. 9 Ways a Study Abroad Program Can Help You Become a Better ESL Teacher, ESL Teacher’s Guide to the Hotly Debated Issue of Immigration. In order to develop good listening skills it is important to help tune your ear into the sounds of the English language. How can we help our students get to where they need to be if we don’t meet them where they are in the beginning? For this reason, standardized tests are not typically the most effective measure of skills mastery. This helps you to pick out individual words and sentences more easily. Sheltered-content instructors must assess students frequently to determine gaps in knowledge and target language needs. In the United States, English-only ELD programs are much more prevalent. Print and cut out our Goal Labels – Speaking and Listening for targeted feedback during your marking!. in Urban Education, ESL Program Specialist, Remote Teaching Strategies for Students with ADHD, Teaching Emotional Regulation to Students, Holiday Books for Kids That Promote Inclusivity and Understanding, How to Engage Young Learners in Reading on Virtual Platforms. Integrated 50/50 ESL Classrooms: Similar to the dual-immersion model’s emphasis on classrooms evenly split between use of home languages and English, the integrated ESL model contains 50 percent native English speakers and 50 percent ELLs, who might have a variety of home languages and varying levels of literacy in them. The Language Experience Approach calls for the student to dictate a story or observation. This visual helps support language acquisition and key vocabulary. This post will explain several broad categories of listening that can happen within the ESL classroom. As they build listening comprehension and vocabulary, students can move onto lessons that demand slightly higher levels of interaction, centered on skills such as: ESL teachers can build the vocabulary of ELLs through motivating activities. Tutors and instructors can use a variety of instructional strategies to teach beginners without using students’ native languages. engaging in community-building activities such as describing schedules and pastimes, having short, targeted discussions about interesting themes, sharing images or objects that spark conversation, watching short videos on art, music, dance, science or other relevant themes, using music, rhythm, songs, tongue twisters, or a mnemonic device that reinforces the meanings of challenging words, playing games such as charades that pair an action or gesture with a vocabulary word. Some students may also understand more English when they listen or read than when they speak or write or vice versa. Rod Ellis, author of “Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective,” describes in other articles an approach to teaching grammar in the context of reading by taking students through several levels: ELLs must first have speaking fluency before they can have reading fluency. Just as ELLs read for multiple purposes, they also write for multiple purposes. The teacher writes down the work in the student’s exact words. In revising, beginning writers can focus on smaller issues, such as writing complete sentences, varying sentence structure, or organizing ideas into paragraphs. This is significantly more than speaking, which accounts for 30 per cent, and reading and writing, which make up 16 per cent and nine per cent respectively. Instead, use reading selections to highlight and practice correct English grammar. Frequently, students who are identified as “Level I” on the WIDA Access Screener receive services through Sheltered English Instruction, which means that they receive English instruction directly and solely from a teacher with an ESL certification or degree in TESOL (Teaching English to Students of Other Languages)/TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language). Suzanne Irujo summarizes the findings of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority and Youth and determines that ESL teachers must target different vocabulary for ELLs than for native English speakers. The simplest involves a student selecting a text at his or her own reading level, or slightly above it. This should be key words that students will need to know. ISRN Education, 1-10. Some best practices for building listening and speaking vocabulary include: The most powerful tool ESL teachers have for teaching correct grammar during speaking activities is their own English fluency. Be sure to show and not just tell when teaching a new concept, idea, or vocabulary. The percentage of time devoted to each language shifts from year to year, with students ultimately spending half the day working in one language and half the day working in another language. student’s level of English language proficiency Accommodate instructional materials and activities Communicate in a manner to ensure ELLs understand concepts ELPS training ELPS Linguistic Instructional Alignment Guide • Slow down for processing time • Give students copy of the PPT ahead of time • Read out loud • Give them academic vocabulary before hand • Printed hand out of glossa Here are 10 teaching strategies to help students listen today. This issue has been discussed extensively by linguist Stephen Krashen, who opines, “Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication – in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.”. Among these types of assessments are: Employing best practices in teaching ESL means that students have the opportunity to interact, participate in authentic tasks, and have ample practice in the basic skills required to master verbal and written English. Beginning ELLs might add pictures, color-coding or other cues to remind them of the meaning of vocabulary words. Beginning ELLs read words from the board, graphic organizers, simple instructions, and beginning or pattern books. Being sensitive to the journey of language acquisition that ELs are on can mean restructuring your own classroom routines to make those students feel safe to take risks in learning. Teacher-made tests that integrate skills from lessons are a common assessment method. She argues that instructors and students should focus on intelligibility. Serena Makofsky is a bilingual educator and curriculum designer with over a decade of experience. Reactionary Listening Reactionary listening involves having the students listen to an utterance and repeat back to you as the teacher. click News RSS. Multi-modal learning helps students deepen their understanding of topics. The student reads the text and times how long it takes. However, ESL instructors should confirm that students have a solid understanding of each form. For example, a student may be able to orally recall the main events from their favorite movie but struggle to recall the main events that led up to the Civil War. These five strategies can help teachers take a huge leap forward in their practice with ELs. Students practice receptive, written, and oral language skills in this simple series of lessons. Students may already possess content knowledge that they cannot yet demonstrate in English. Understand the Grammar Form: Students read sentences or excerpts from the text, all of which contain the target grammatical structure. Many times we are formulating what we want to say next while trying to listen to what our students are trying to say. For this reason, teachers of ELLs should devote extra time and materials to building students’ schemas. This process helps students organize their thinking and also gives teachers a chance to review gaps in schemas, vocabulary, or grammatical patterns the student might need to fill in to complete a first draft. Since ELD programs can encompass different ESL classroom structures, it is important to understand the differences between a classroom with ELs and one without so that we can best meet their instructional needs. For this reason, many schools offer a sheltered-content model that integrates core academic courses with SDAIE strategies and an intense focus on language development. English Language Learners (ELLs) are students whose first and primary language is other than English. Perhaps you can begin with a short two-minute conversation in English. Key strategies that can be taught in the listening classroom include selective listening, listening for different purposes, predicting, visualising, and inferencing. "I need a pencil," the slouching boy said quietly, as he looked right past me. I Want to Teach ESL, Should I Learn a Foreign Language? Instructors also perform quick assessments during lessons, independent practice, and group work. Because of this diversity of needs, many teachers in this context use group activities, cooperative learning, graphic organizers, multimodal forms of input, and hands-on activities to offer ample opportunities for building vocabulary and increasing interaction. Have students draw a think mark on a sticky and place it on the text where the reflection came up. Several writing activities promote the development of English vocabulary. They are available in physical offline format and also for free online. Developing reading fluency is about the students increasing their reading speed and their smoothness of delivery. She has written articles, books, blog posts, units, and assessments for ESL and EFL educators and students. Students listen for the grammatical structure and then do a gap-fill exercise in which they write down the grammatical form as they heard it read. Students must identify and correct the errors. To stay current with students’ needs, instructors must employ a variety of assessments. Finally, the student alone reads the text aloud and also tracks the print. The stories we tell take on new meaning when we tell them in our own voices. In “Assessing English Language Proficiency: Using Valid Results to Optimize Instruction,” the authors point out that the notion of English proficiency is an abstract one. Receive the latest in education news and lesson plans via email. Listening comprehension is the basis for your speaking, writing and reading skills. developing basic English language skills in reading and writing. The instructor often combines native English speakers with ELLs in classroom activities, so that ELLs have the opportunity to work with fluent speakers. The teacher tracks the print with a finger while reading aloud. The writing process has many forms and permutations. 10 Awesome Activities to Improve Intermediate ESL Students’ Listening. A student’s ability to effectively listen has a major impact on building the communication skills needed both inside and outside of school. Typical strategies include listening to fluent English, building receptive vocabulary through repetition and schema building, using gestures to show comprehension, and choral reading. Language development is most profound when instruction combines the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Grammar drills, book exercises, flashcards and other quiet, traditional methods are useful but can only get your students so far. During this time, instructors must immerse their students in diverse language experiences and provide many cues to support comprehension. Maybe you could ask a question instead … You seem like you want to run away because you keep moving around. In essence, by over-correcting students’ pronunciation, vocabulary, or grammar during speaking, teachers increase students’ affective filters. In addition, recognizing that depending on each student’s cultural background, their beliefs and traditions may unveil what motivates them as learners is also crucial. If “systematically building on students’ experiences and knowledge” is a key to scaffolding, knowledge of students is of even greater importance. Some evidence-based speaking and listening instructional routines have been useful for students during content area instruction in the past: Readers' Theatre in which students practice reading and rereading a script, either one that was prepared for them or one they developed collaboratively, based on an informational text they have studied (e.g., Young & Rasinski, 2009). Repeating this exercise several times, the student notes how both the time and the reading improve. One way to increase student engagement in instruction is through interactive notebooks. Stephen Krashen referred to this time as “the silent period.” Also known as pre-production, this silent period might last anywhere from several weeks to a year. • provide guidance and practice for the use of learning strategies and study skills consistent with successful additional language learning. Dialogues– a natural speaking … For example, providing extended wait time when asking students to answer questions or share aloud is a best practice. More advanced ELLs read their own and other students’ writing, as well as textbooks, reference books, online information, and fiction and nonfiction of different genres. Listening to fluent English in a variety of contexts (teacher presentation, native English speaker presentation, recorded dialogues, songs, comprehensible video clips) is one of the best tools for teaching pronunciation. No single technique or approach works for every student, but ELLs tend to succeed when they are invested in the process and motivated to participate. Typical strategies include listening to fluent English, building receptive vocabulary through repetition and schema building, using gestures to show comprehension, and choral reading. An assignment to compose a brief nonfiction piece can incorporate academic terms and structures. Listen to Comprehend: The instructor reads aloud a text containing a repeated grammatical structure, and students listen for it. Allow students to use their native language with peers for a quick brainstorm about what they know about a topic before presenting their ideas to the whole class. ELLs enter their grade levels, and instructors use specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE) techniques to ensure they have comprehensible input. In another version of Repeated Reading, a teacher reads a short text, typically selected by the student. Correct the Grammar Form: Teacher give ELLs a written passage with errors in grammar. This strategy involves a notebook and usually gluing charts and/or graphic organizers into the notebook to establish a way to structure and record vocabulary, definitions, notes, and graphics that support them. Both read the text aloud together again, and this time the student tracks the print. Challenges Students with ADHD Face Remotely Unfortunately, with the times that we are…, Have you ever heard the quote, “You’ve gotta Maslow before you Bloom?” The…, The holiday season is a time for “peace on Earth.” One small contribution…, What are Virtual Platforms? General program models for teaching English language learners (ELLs) include content-based integrated, content-based self-contained, and dual-immersion approaches, leading to a variety of classroom configurations. For beginning ESL readers—not just those who are young in age, but also those who are young in the use of English—sight words must be developed in a similar fashion to how they are developed in young native speakers of English. 7. Teaching English Language Learners What the Research Does and Does Not Say. "I can let you borrow one. Students who have Limited English Proficiency (LEP) and score greater than one on the screener may receive English support from an ESL-certified teacher within the regular education classroom following the co-teaching model. #4: Dictogloss — A Classic ESL Activity Dictogloss is a challening, yet easily adaptable ESL Speaking and Listening Activity that will quickly become one of your favourites. There is no single point at which a student can be deemed proficient in English, as skills come at different times, vary in complexity, and may peak and plateau. Home EESOLL; English Online home ; Literacy Online home; ESOL Online home; click What do I do with a new English language learner? Some possible Teacher Inquiry questions: It can be used with just about any level, individually or in groups of up to four students. One of the more powerful language learning tools is to engage in all stages of the writing process, though not every piece of writing must go through this multi-step, multi-lesson process. Students can draw pictures that go with vocabulary words, complete sentence stems, and practice reading and spelling. click Planning for my students' needs. Effective teaching practices vary widely, depending upon the context of the teaching. If more advanced speakers or native speakers are integrated into the classroom, instructors should use their language abilities as models as well. The text relies purely on the schemas and vocabulary of the student. 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